Past Papers

Introducing the 8th Annual Plymouth Postgraduate Symposium


“Connecting Communities of Practice”


A Review of Plymouth Post-Graduate Student Research in 2013


The 2013 symposium represents the eighth edition of papers produced by Plymouth Business School, a faculty of the University of Plymouth, UK following the event on. The move to publishing extended abstracts with full reference lists comes from balancing needs to provide sufficient feedback to students to guide presentations while enabling publication of papers in an easily digestible format to a wider community. As a new addition, this year includes a delegate list where presenters can be contacted for further information and latest developments on their research.


In an exciting development, the first poster award was presented on 28th May 2013 at the one day symposium. A total of four posters competed for the prize. As announced in the plenary session, the prize represented a recognition that not every student would want to present to an audience but may prefer to discuss their research on a one to one basis throughout the day. Of equal importance is the demonstrable skill involved in condensing one’s research by means of diagrams, photographs and text. This helps researchers communicate with a wider audience than more traditional publications and both posters and their abstracts are also included in this publication.


A final update for accessing symposium details sees the introduction of keynote speaker slides this year reflecting the quality and breadth of panel sessions (also available in the electronic format – see below). The topics are wide and varied but echo the themes set including connecting communities through practice, better practice, in practice and ruled by practice. In addition, there is now also an electronic version of the 2013 Symposium Proceedings that has enabled all four panel sessions to be recorded which can be viewed on multi-media. The website for the event and previous archives is available from


Thirteen postgraduate presentations (posters and talks) were provided by students who explained their research findings to the interactive audience throughout the day. There were presentations from students in the Schools of Management, Hospitality and Tourism, plus School of Law.


The event was opened by Doctor Jonathan Moizer followed by each of the four panels in succession with their themed keynote lecture.


Once again a warm welcome was extended to students from Hochschule Munchen in the south of Germany where their European and international perspectives chimed with themes in the symposium. This exchange has become a tradition in past years where many students have presented here the UK (May) and again for September in Germany.


The small yet diverse group at this year’s symposium engaged those presenting with their energetic questioning and are providing feedback on what could be improved for subsequent events. By engaging early in the autumn term with new PhD candidates from alternative backgrounds at their induction event, it should be possible to increase participation further in 2014 so that the Symposium can once again return to previous levels within the themes adopted for the event! Even if unable to present business-related researchers (including masters students studying for professional development) may well be able to offer contacts for potential keynote speakers that would fit with the symposium theme.


Organising Committee Members

David Carter

Nicola Langdon

Magda Maszczynska

Panel Chairs/Keynote Speakers

Dr Adrian Barton

Dr Jamie Gaskarth

Commander Ian Gibson (RN)

Dr Derek Greer

Dr Patrick Holden

Police Sergeant Robin Loveridge

Mr Miguel Silva

Presenters of talks

Ali AlKhraiji

Aneta Brockhill

David Carter

Imane El Hakimi

Nicola Langdon

Magda Maszczynska

Jiang Pan

Roland Vogt

Presenters of posters

David Carter

Imane El Hakimi

Waleed Hamed

Paul Igwe

Academic advisors

Dr Adrian Barton

Dr Jonathan Lean



Communities through practice. The UK space industry has struggled since inception to receive realistic funding. Only the current gloom from service sector prospects has re-established the importance of investing in a broad economy that includes high technology businesses. Derek Greer explained how lobbying through trade organisations has now led to the first ESA establishment in the UK this year and that this builds on the successes of the National Space Agency. David continued by developing the theme of simulation helping business to evolve by understanding and testing the consequences of key management resource allocation decisions in a healthcare setting. He suggested that evidencing likely decision outcomes over time might offer a clarity of decision making that appeared to be lacking which had led to recent failures in the UK healthcare system. Roland completed the panel session by comparing communities fleet operators in Germany. In particular, how practice varied between different fleet operations responding to the green emission challenges established across Europe.




Communities better practice Commencing with a talk on disadvantaged communities within Plymouth, Miguel Silva presented his detailed interpretation on associated social theories and ideas. Project management concepts and how they apply to Arab communities of practice, Imane El Hakimi described the impact of middle-east cultures on western practices for managing projects. This theme continued with an examination of the clash between Palestine and Israel based on hydro politics. Considered as structural violence, water supply deprivation was the theme investigated by Aneta Brockhill. By contrast Nicola Langdon discussed the UK media coverage of armed conflicts in her research aimed at reviewing literature on the topic from specific case studies. This concluded the panel session where research was being used to help identify better practice between potentially conflicted communities with different aims and objectives.



Communities in practice. Operating a small commercial port poses many practical challenges when considering the different communities of practice involved. Recent concern and legislation for the environment have brought considerable pressures to bear on ring-fenced budgets from local authorities for operating such ports. Innovative solutions are described by Ian Gibson in his management of the port of Salcombe on behalf of South Hams District Council in his opening address for the panel. This theme continued with Ali AlKurajii describing his research into operational knowledge management networks that could be used in change projects by provide organisational learning from experience that could be used time and again by decision makers. Jiang Pan developed the concept further with the information used for decision making when he described squandering meagre support resources by storing more data than necessary to make such decisions. By employing process models within global supply chains, for example where sea and airports enable real-world exchanges of goods, it was envisaged that critical data could be identified and retained for further use. The panel was closed by Patrick Holden who described his experience of working on establishing international policies in practice.


Communities ruled by practice The last panel of this year’s Plymouth Business School International Symposium was focused on the communities ruled by practice. The panel was consistent of professionals and academics who presented their papers according to their expertise and interests. The first talk belonged to the keynote speaker- Robin Loveridge from Devon and Cornwall Police who emphasized “The importance of communities in defeating radicalization”. His presentation was focused on local community of Plymouth and the surrounding areas, its diversification, social and cultural needs of citizens, as well as the necessity for the community to be open minded and cooperative in order to maintain the multi- cultural equilibrium.

The second paper was presented by Magda Maszczynska (“The Devil at the Door, Investigating the nature of communities and organised crime within”), who highlighted the difficult realms of current Criminal Justice System and its battle with constantly expanding organized crime.

The third talk belonged to the chair of the panel: Dr Adrian Barton (“Working with substance users – some thoughts from the field”), who shared a very interesting insight into working with substance users and the need for first hand data and the importance of the primary research. He maintained a very important point that in order to expand the existing body of knowledge we need to conduct first- hand research and collect primary data in order to achieve the most objective account. The true, unbiased research comes from people who are the part of a certain group, event, phenomenon, who have the relevant insight and understanding of why things happen in certain ways.





Name(s) of   Author(s): David Carter
Affiliated   Institution(s): Plymouth University
Address for   Correspondence: School of ManagementPlymouth Business School, University of Plymouth
Email Address for   Correspondence:
Telephone Number   for Correspondence:
Stream and Title   No: 1
Title of Paper: Making management decisions using the power of groups.
Keywords: Group model building, decision conferencing, public sector



1. Problem statement/rationale, including reference to   key literature:
Front line public service delivery in the UK is facing   radical change as successive governments grapple with continuing rises in   demand for better service with mounting pressure on resources. The problems   have concatenated with the 2008 worldwide banking crisis and reduced   availability of UK public finances, with all sectors of public service having   to reduce their resource commitments.The research study seeks to understand aspects of   complexity within public-facing frontline service delivery when making important   strategic decisions. By working with managers and staff to construct views of   the issues to address, the research aims to interpret these sensations before   rationalising viable routes forward. This is achieved by understanding   requirements before establishing suitable process and then solving the   multi-faceted puzzle for the range of stakeholders involved.


Early in the research process, this paper focuses on   describing the methodology by which the aim and objectives can be met along   with key literature (see 2 below) that underpins the suggested approach. The   contribution to knowledge is based on acknowledged gaps in the literature to   trade effective understanding in partnership and therefore negotiate better   solutions. To correct this deficit, engagement of stakeholders in developing   shared perspectives on an issue in common will be addressed through a case   study.


2. Research design and methods of data collection and   analysis or method inquiry:
Aim. To show that by engaging groups to build whole system   representations of a shared messy issue, it may be possible to evidence   effective management decisions.Objective 1. Can decision makers scope performance metrics   that could evolve to describe individual hopes and fears for their own   organisation?

Objective 2. Can expert practitioners define common causal   structure to reflect how things work now and what may be needed in the future   based on specified performance needs?

Objective 3. Can decision makers agree a framework of   shared criteria to measure performance across the system?

Objective 4. Can expert practitioners explain future   options viability and decision makers negotiate better resource allocation to   solve today’s complex issues?



Critical realism is employed from the functionalist paradigm   (rational explanation using objective constructs to inform shared decisions)   to elicit views, using qualified story and quantified metric examples from   those who experience the issue, for translation into representative models   (Johnson and Onwuegbuzie, 2004). Topics researched relationship to the   researcher (epistemology) is therefore partially subjective and so multiple   groups and multiple models (multimethodology is the descriptive term for more   than one modelling method; Munro and Mingers, 2002) are employed to reduce   possible research bias from this axiomatic, rich picture. Given that   individuals sense phenomena post-event, the dynamic nature of many business   issues can be deconstructed using simulation techniques to assess which   change generates which response.


Due to   the multi-model research methods employed, this study adopts a deductive   approach to simulator construction where cause and effect can be tested and   an inductive approach for building a performance framework where perceptions   are rendered into structure. Saunders et   al refer to this as a combined approach (2004).


As the research study aims to gain a rich understanding of   a business issue, a case study strategy could apply according to Robson (2011)   to develop empirical results within the specific study context. In order to   address aim and objectives, a single case study is planned to engage   different stakeholder groups to unpick a messy, service delivery issue   crossing multiple service provider boundaries. Traditional focus group   engagement techniques are supplanted by specific techniques for eliciting   model details from participants (Vennix 1996, Belton and Stewart 2002). The   outcome should evidence and explain which priority service improvement   strategy option to implement.


In order to reduce evidence from the possible system   variables, it is necessary to interpret and test group views on cause and   effect in the system. Therefore the models provide a numerical proxy for   qualified relationships that can be described by users. Modelling methods are   used in the study to quantify relationships include system dynamics and   multi-criteria decision analysis (Santos, Belton and Howick, 2008).


Multiple methods, involving a mix of collection and   analysis techniques, offer insight into complex business issues. The study   employs mixed-model research as qualified views are incorporated into   quantified representations by means of models. This selection offers greater   opportunity to answer specific research questions alongside generating trust   in the answers and any inferences based upon predicted trends and   performance.


Whereas the study is cross-sectional with a baseline set   in a present day issue, the nature of simulation enables longitudinal   predictions to be envisaged by participants to provide missing evidence   supporting particular decisions.


Evidence of the problem and potential solutions is   collected using interactive dialogues (Lane, 2001) describes it as   interactive system dynamics) within groups whose data can be captured and   tested in models before making a decision based on the best available   evidence. Causal structure of system behaviours is assembled in a system   dynamics simulation whereas system performance is aggregated though multi-criteria   decision analysis framework. Participant errors by are reduced in a group   setting through open peer-moderated discussion plus accessible ‘white-box’   models, as will participant bias based on the size and experience of the   group. Observer errors are minimised by facilitating model construction and   checking common understanding to reduce unforeseen bias being introduced.   Validity based on historical behaviour is confirmed using system dynamics.   Ensuring consistent views means that absenteeism should be reduced by   minimising time committed to model building as well as offering records to   allow those returning to catch-up.    Causal ambiguity is made explicit within system dynamics simulations   due to the concept of feedback being captured.


Testing participants’ “before and after” views will help   to determine whether objectives for stakeholder groups and individuals have   been achieved as well as establish a shared data repository for supporting   informed decisions over different timescales on the case studied.


3. Main findings:
The literature suggests a strong connection supporting   different perspectives on complex issues involving multiple agencies. Not one   person has the whole picture and so using groups helps clarify the   requirements for a shared system before decide how to interpret associated   performance from collective causal-structure. The proposed modelling approach   builds on system dynamics and multi-criteria decision analysis techniques by   building them in groups to support improved outcomes for all.
4. Discussion of implications:
It is anticipated that this research methodology can be   replicated and therefore generalised beyond the local setting to other   situations in the UK. It avoids pitfalls from intellectual isolation as it is   tied to theory. Research study not only adopts a logical rationale but it   enables research question translation into scripts to elicit data. The   facilitated research is based on better outcomes for the public and therefore   apolitical but will continue to generate new questions.
5. List of key references/resources:
Belton V and Steward T. (2002). Multiple   criteria decision analysis: An integrated approach. Boston (MA), USA:   Kluwer.Lane DC (2001). Rerum cognoscere   causas: Part I—How do the ideas of system dynamics relate to traditional   social theories and the voluntarism/determinism debate? System Dynamics   Review 17(2). pp 97–118Johnson, R. B. and Onwuegbuzie, A.   (2004). Mixed Methods Research: A paradigm whose time has come. Educational   Researcher, 33 (7). pp14–26.

Munro, I and Mingers J* (2002) The   use of multimethodology in practice—results of a survey of practitioners.   Journal of the Operational Research Society. 53, pp369–378.

Robson, C. (2011). Real world   research: A resource for users of social research methods in applied settings   (3rd ed.). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Santos, S.; Belton, V.; Howick, S.   2008. Enhanced performance measuring using OR: A case study. Journal of   the Operational Research Society 59(6): pp762-775.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill,   A. (2004) Research methods for business students, 4th ed. Harlow:   Prentice Hall

Vennix JAM. 1996. Group Model   Building: Facilitating Team Learning Using System Dynamics. Chichester:   John Wiley & Sons.




Name(s) of   Author(s): Roland Vogt
Affiliated   Institution(s): Plymouth University/University of Applied Sciences Munich
Address for   Correspondence: Prof.-   Berberich- Str. 8D-85579   Neubiberg
Email Address for   Correspondence:
Telephone Number   for Correspondence: +498960665366
Stream and Title   No: 1
Title of Paper: Forces for   Sustainability and Marketing – Exploring Drivers for Future Orientated Fleet   Management
Keywords: fleet-management, sustainability, marketing, stakeholder   approach, motivation



1. Problem statement/rationale, including reference to   key literature:
In German fleet management sustainability and marketing   activities are acted different and lead to different success for the firms’   stakeholders.This paper shows why and under what circumstances car   fleet managing firms are likely to be engaged in sustainable measures of   running their car fleet and communicate about their measures through   marketing activities.Previous investigation through a survey with 307   participating car fleet operating firms led to following propositions:

1.  Proposition: Responsible behaviour in   fleet management is that more likely to happen in organizations, the larger   the size of fleet is.

2. Proposition:   In companies the responsibilities for ecological fleet management is more   likely at the management of a company than at the fleet management.

3. Proposition:   Companies usually start with car policy measures, which are easily to   implement. It is likely that these measures are followed by more lavish   measures as employee training and motivating incentive systems.

4. Proposition:   If there are economic advantages for the company, it is much more likely that   the management is justified to invest in CSR measures.


This initiative is aligned to meeting the overall   objectives of designing a substantial stakeholder approach for car fleet   management using the strategic management approach of Edward R. Freeman  (1984). Therefore the stakeholders and the   firm need incentive compatibility as Homann and Suchanek represent  (2005). The value coming out of this   stakeholder orientation is described through a four-factor perspective in   Stakeholder Theory, Value, and Firm Performance (Harrison & Wicks, 2013).



2. Research design and methods of data collection and   analysis or method inquiry:
Coming from the results of a survey among car fleet   responsible persons in Germany, a multiple embedded case study was adopted in   this study. Therefore four cases of different firm approaches and fleet types   have been investigated trough semi structured in depth interviews.
3. Main findings:
Case Characteristics:

Case A Case B Case C Case D
Owner structure familycontrolled by family and management familycontrolled by family and management shareholders controlled by managers entrepreneur
Market producing and selling white goods global logistics and transport national energy-intensive industries global taxi-serviceslocal
Type of Fleet non-coreutility-fleet/sales core-businessutility-fleet non-coremanagers/sales core-businessutility-fleet
Size of Fleet 1.200 250 1.200 60
Function of main informant commercial     manager / car fleet manager head of marketing and management-systems head of purchasing mobility global owner and general manager
Primary stakeholders regarding car-fleet technical writers employees, trading partners local policy and population, employees, competitors, employees, shareholder, CSR department employees, customers (business and private)


Cross Case A / B motivation for:


The main sustainable   fleet-measures:

Eco-trainings have been arranged with the employees and   car policy focus on models with eco-friendly engine and configuration.   Employees are proud of the firm’s behaviour in terms of car policy and   support the measures. Motivation is reducing fleet-costs, enhancing drivers   safety, avoiding any risks for the valuable brand or corporate reputation   with view on the main external and internal stakeholders as trading –   partners (Case A) or local society (Case B).



The products of Case A are highly assessed by their   environmental friendliness. The firm is well decorated with sustainability   and brand value prices. They undertake no relevant marketing activities   regarding sustainable fleet management. The focus of society should stay on   the sustainability of the products in place of the fleet. Therefore the fleet   mustn’t activate critical reactions (e.g. by technical writers) in terms of   risk reduction and doesn’t need active positive attention.

The firm of Case B enjoys a good reputation about their   top level technical facilities also of the fleet and treating their employees   in an equitable way.

Bot cases have no interest and motivation to attract   further attention about their car fleet, wherefore they aren’t engaged in car   fleet marketing activities.


Proposition 5:   In cases of firms, which are marked with a high reputation in core   business-sustainability, the main motivation for sustainable car fleet management   is risk prevention.


Cross Case C / D motivation for:


The main sustainable   fleet-measures:

In Case C the car policy focuses on a bonus malus system   supporting a low level CO2 emission car choice by the employees. Case D   focuses on choosing hybrid taxis as well as training and coaching the   drivers. Motivation lies besides cost reduction and drivers safety mainly in   enhancement of corporate reputation, which is perceived as a permanent   challenge for energy intensive industries and services.



Marketing activities for both cases are mainly public   relations to consumer media and technical press both supported by   participation and gaining important awards. The main motivation is   enhancement of corporate reputation (national in Case C, local in Case D) and   to increase short-term orders (Case D).


Proposition 6:   In cases of firms, which are engaged in energy-intensive industries or   services, positive public relations about sustainable car fleet management   plays a significant role.


Over all cross case   synthesis:


  • All contact persons and car        fleet responsible contact persons fully agree to the four propositions        as results of the survey. So they can be taken as universally valid.


  • In all cases due to war for        talents the employees play also a significant role in designing the        sustainable fleet-management mainly in the aspect of fairness.



4. Discussion of implications:
A picture is built now how car fleet responsible managers   base their management decisions regarding sustainability of the firm’s   mobility. There also a pattern is visible how marketing strategies depend on   different criteria. These results can already not be seen as general to all   companies. To reach universal validity, for each case analysis of the firms’   primary stakeholders and additional case examples should be added.
5. List of key references/resources:


Freeman, E. R. (1984). Strategic Management, A   Stakeholder Approach. Boston: Cambridge University Press.

Harrison, J. S., &   Wicks, A. C. (1 2013). Stakeholder Theory, Value, and Firm Performance. (S.   f. Ethics, Hrsg.) Business Ethics Quarterly 23 :1 , 23   (1), S. 97-124.

Homann, K., & Suchanek, A. (2005). Ökonomik Eine   Einführung. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.


Name(s) of   Author(s): Imane El Hakimi
Affiliated   Institution(s): Plymouth University – PBS
Address for   Correspondence: Plymouth Business School – Room 510Drake CircusPL4 8AA, Plymouth
Email Address for   Correspondence:
Telephone Number   for Correspondence: 07972306647
Stream and Title   No: 2
Title of Paper: Integration of Western and Arab Management   Practices: New Perspectives and Challenges
Keywords: International management, Arab Culture, Work ethics, Management practices.



1. Problem statement/rationale, including reference to   key literature:
The understanding of the others’ culture   and the acceptance of their values help employees in sharing same objectives   and create a friendly atmosphere where they communicate smoothly. Therefore,   instead of transferring Western methods to the non-western countries, it is   important to create a new strategy that plays the role of an adaptor meeting   both parties’ requirements. Only then, many approaches could be applied   successfully.The purpose of this research is to explore   management practices in multinational companies in Arab countries and examine   Arab and Western managers’ techniques for an effective management (El Sawah   et al., 2008). Additionally, assess barriers causing problems in   organisations investigating on leadership which remains a big challenge for   Arab companies. Additionally, Organisations’ development will be analysed to   highlight possible behavioural changes to ensure a creative, innovative and   competitive organisational environment (Mostafa, 2005). Therefore, the   quality of investments in the Arab countries is given high priority,   especially with the competitive global market. This study is to suggest new   ways for managers seeking to develop and improve the quality of businesses   they achieve nationally and internationally.


2. Research design and methods of data collection and   analysis or method inquiry:
Based on the   literature review as a secondary data and primary data from the mixed   methodology, this study is designed to define applied management practices in   the Arab World and in particular taking Morocco as a case study. In addition,   an identified strategic framework is to be proposed integrating both Arab and   Western Management Practices in order to create a common and innovative   managerial procedure to be applied within multinational companies.  This may create a smooth connection between   the West and the Arab World in terms of investing in international businesses   and may introduce innovative approaches expected to balance both Arab and Western   management practices in a more global environment.
3. Main findings:
Few researches   have been conducted about Arab Management Practices to determine the main   strategic aspects in terms of international business. Unfortunately very few   could propose precise and applicable approaches to overcome problems that   face international businesses in Arab countries in terms of management   practices. Globalisation helped the introduction of many approaches to the   Arab World even though adopting managerial methods developed in the West is   difficult in developing countries. By considering new or adaptable   approaches, several changes will improve communication and increase   performance and encourage innovation and knowledge sharing. This may create a   smooth connection between the West and the Arab World in terms of   international investments in the Arab World and may introduce innovative   approaches expected to balance both Arab and Western management practices in   a more global investment environment.By adapting the   right practice(s), decision makers and leaders in companies will encourage   approaches that lead more than control and apply fair rules more than misuse   of power. Hence, employees will feel more valuable creating a trustful,   international and multicultural work environment. This research will offer   new perspectives about the feasibility of integrating Western and Arab   practices and determine whether it really fits Arab companies’ policies and   its culture or not. Consequently, it will add more insights about Management   in the Arab countries and gives another opportunity to investigate on the   effectiveness of this framework within the Arabic context.


4. Discussion of implications:
Globalisation helped the introduction of   many approaches to the Arab World even though adopting managerial methods developed   in the West is difficult in developing countries (Abdel-Razek, 1998). Few   researches have been conducted about Arab Management Practices in the Arab   context in general and none of them focused on the Moroccan context in   particular to determine the main strategic aspects and problems in terms of   international business. This research will add more insight in the topic and   may encourage other scholars to search in this area proposing new approaches   which may increase performance, encourage innovation and share knowledge in   multinational companies operating in the Arab World.


5. List of key references/resources:
Abdel-Razek,   R. H. (1998). Factors affecting construction quality in Egypt: identification   and relative importance. Engineering, Construction   and Architectural Management. 5 (3). Pp.: 220-227.

El-Kot,   G. and Leat, M. (2008). Employees’ perceptions of supervisory facets: An   investigation within an Egyptian context. International   Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management. 1 (2). Pp.:   149-165.


El   Sawah, S., Tharwat, A. A. E. and Rasmy, M. H. (2008). A quantitative model to   predict the Egyptian ERP implementation success index. Business Process Management Journal. 14 (3). Pp.: 188-306.


Fukukawa,   K., Balmer, J. M. T., & Gray, E. R. (2007). Mapping the Interface between   corporate identity, ethics and corporate social responsibility. Journal of   Business Ethics, 76(1), 1–15.


Hofstede,   G., Hofstede, G. J. & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and Organizations:   Software of the Mind. Revised 3rd Edition. New York:   McGraw-Hill.


Mostafa,   M. (2007). Evaluating the competitive market efficiency of top listed   companies in Egypt. Journal of Economic   Studies. 34 (5). Pp.: 430-452.


Mostafa,   M. (2005). Factors affecting organisational creativity and innovativeness in   Egyptian business organisations: an empirical investigation. Journal of Management Development. 24   (1). Pp.: 7-33.


Mayer,   R. C., & Gavin, M. B. (2005). Trust in management and performance: Who   minds the shop while the employees watch the boss. Academy of Management   Journal, 48(5), 874–888.



Name(s) of   Author(s): Ali Alkuraiji PhD, Shaofeng Liu Dr,
Affiliated   Institution(s): Business School and Management
Address for Correspondence: Plymouth Buisness School
Email Address for   Correspondence:;;
Telephone Number   for Correspondence: +441752585721
Stream and Title   No: 3
Title of Paper: Knowledge Management IT project Oriented change managment
Keywords: Knowledge managment, organisational change, IT projects,   Project Oriented.



1. Problem statement/rationale, including reference to   key literature:
This research concerns knowledge   management (KM) towards enhancing decision support systems in IT project   oriented change management. Since knowledge and experience are highlighted as   parts of the keys to the success of change, issues are identified including   lack of top management support, lack of project documentation into knowledge   base, lack of coordination among parties and lack of employees involvement in   change process (discussion, designing, decision making)The history of change management is   evident that many change management projects fail to achieve their goals. In   this light, Schaffer and Thompson (1992) pointed that through conducting a   survey of 300 electronic companies, 63% of those failed to achieve such   improvements in their products during the implementation stages. Similarly,   Hammer and Champy (1993) claim that 70% of change management projects did not   meet their desirable goals. In 1996, Kotter also stated in his published   research that 60% of change management programme failed. The aforementioned   results were also supported by the result of a recent McKinsey and company   survey of business executives which indicates that only 30% of change   management programmes are successful (Keller & Aiken, 2008).   Nevertheless, the area of project oriented change management is relatively   new, aims to effectively manage change by projects in order to enhance the   success of change projects (Rebecca, 2013; Huemann, Keegan & Turner 2007;   Guest, 2002).The literature of project oriented   change management seems to have some lack in addressing the issues of KM in   project oriented organisation. Therefore appears to be deficient in many   areas recognised as necessary in coping with advanced practices in this   regard. In order to address the gap in knowledge in terms of the   opportunities and challenges facing large IT implementation in large   organisation, various related documentation and studies undertaken in the   field of project oriented company have been reviewed.

Main opportunities include the   development of sustainable knowledge network through the utilisation of key   competences including people, project team and organisations’ overall   “intellectual asset”, and the control of issues surrounding organisational   strategy such as policy, change process and models, political issues and   systems.

The key challenges include the   interoperability and the lack of coordination and cooperation and authority   of regulation; the lack of aligning the key factors of project oriented   including organisational culture, structure, capacity, knowledge sources and   organisational strategy towards managing by projects. These issues are   considered to have an influence on knowledge traceability; hence interrupting   the channel of knowledge flow within an organisation. Subsequently, losing   valuable knowledge within the process of change will have an effect on   decision making; thus slowing work performance.

2. Research design and methods of data collection and   analysis or method inquiry:
While secondary data plays a fundamental role within   assessments in emergencies, it was used to highlight issues surrounding the   two multidisciplinary fields: Knowledge Management (KM) and change management   (CH). The sub-term approach was used to address the issues of desired areas;   those are Knowledge Management systems (KMSs) and Project Oriented (PO). In   order to address the objectives of this study and to answer the research   questions, secondary data was used to raise the issues and to trace their   relations. In the next stage however, a semi structured interview data collection technique will be used.   This is because the research is looking at reasons and influential factors   affecting Knowledge systems in IT project oriented change management in   enhancing decision making and work performance. The case study of this   project is selected purposefully because it has some use of IT projected   oriented initiatives, and at this time it should anonymous.
3. Main findings:
The high percentage of change management failure sheds the   light on the complexity of reaching some consensus regarding key success   factors of change. However, collections of fundamental factors that have been   empirically proved to have an effect on change are identified and presented   including knowledge networks, drawing a clear strategy of the desired goal,   concerning human side of change, concerning organisational side of change and   concerning technological side of change.
4. Discussion of implications:
The outcome of this study can benefit academics to develop   and evaluate the highlighted issues surrounding the planning of IT project   oriented change management. Practitioners can also improve their decision   making in the planning and managing changes when concerning these influential   issues.
5. List of key references/resources:
Guest D.,   (2002).Human resource management, corporate performance and employee   wellbeing: building the worker into HRM. J Ind Relat, 44(3), 335–58.Hammer,   M., & Champy, J., (1993).Reengineering the corporation: a manifesto for   business revolution”, Harper Business, New York, NY.Huemann,   M., (2010). Considering Human Resource Management when developing a   project-oriented company: Case study of a telecommunication company. International   Journal of Project Management, 28(4), 361-369.

Huemann,   M., Keegan, A., & Turner, J., (2007). Human resource management in the   project-oriented company: A review. International Journal of Project Management,   25(3), 315-323.

Keller,   S., & Aiken, C., (2008).The inconvenient truth about change management.   Chicago, IL: McKinsey & Company.

Kotter,   P., (1996).Leading Change, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.

Rebecca,   B., (2013). Determinants of human resource performance in project oriented   organizations in Kericho Municipality (Doctoral dissertation).

Schaffer,   R., & Thompson, H., (1992). Successful change programs begin with   results. Harvard Business.



Name(s) of   Author(s): Nicola Langdon
Affiliated   Institution(s): Plymouth   University
Address for   Correspondence: Rm 405, Cookworthy   Building, Plymouth University, PL4 8AA
Email Address for   Correspondence:
Telephone Number   for Correspondence:
Stream and Title   No: 2
Title of Paper: The Media-Foreign   Policy Nexus: A Discussion of Conceptualisations
Keywords: Media, Foreign   Policy, Communication, Conflict, Humanitarian Intervention, Decision-Making



1. Problem   statement/rationale, including reference to key literature:
The post-Cold War promise of a new   world order brought with it a complexity of western military engagements   abroad, in parallel to radical developments in telecommunications   technology.  The power of these new   technologies to influence or alter the foreign policy decision-making   environment has been of significant focus for scholars (Bennett, 1990;   Carruthers, 2000; Entman, 2003, 2004; Gilboa, 2005; Hallin, 1989; Herman and   Chomsky, 1994; Robinson, 2002, 2008a, 2008b), developing a multiplicity of   conceptualisations of a media-foreign policy nexus.  This paper provides a discussion of such   conceptualisations, illustrating their fluidity, augmentation and   connectedness, despite often polarised base foundations.  Through a discussion of the literature and   theoretical debates that comprise the dynamic relationship between foreign   policy decision-making and the mass media, this paper hopes to contribute to   the ground research in questioning why British foreign policy focuses upon   some crises and not others.
2. Research design and   methods of data collection and analysis or method inquiry:
The study adopts a critical theory   ontological and epistemological approach.    The research seeks to reveal intrinsic structural bias in the sourcing   and framing of foreign policy crises, and employs critical theory with its   focus on “emancipation and enlightenment, at making agents aware of hidden   coercion” (Geuss, 1981:55).  The   research will employ a hermeneutical methodological approach in seeking to   analyse and explore meaning within media texts that are   context-specific.  This study is   concerned with the implications and rationales that lie behind the foreign   policy crises decision-making, and rather than quantifying numerical levels   of coverage within the media, it is concerned with unpicking the framing of   that coverage through symbols and language use.  The research seeks to interpret media   frames and recognise what the resultant implications are for foreign policy   interventions.The study will utilise a case study   sample of 3-4 foreign policy crises.    Once context-setting media frames have been established,   interpretation of data through the use of critical discourse analysis will   permit a deeper interpretation.  This   element of the research will involve a systematic selection of British   newspaper coverage of each case study.    The qualitative interpretive framing and discourse analysis may be   cross-referenced with policy analysis.    In order to consolidate the research findings and provide a deeper   understanding of the research problematique, the study proposes to undertake   a small number of elite interviews.
3. Main findings:
The media-foreign policy nexus can be   approached from two dichotomous concepts; an elite media model (manufacturing   consent), and the plural media model and much of the existing literature upon   this nexus will fall, broadly-speaking, on one side of this line of reasoning   (further, see Robinson, 2008a, 2008b).    The elite model argues that the elites within society hold power; for   example, governments, foreign policy officials, big business and so on   (Robinson, 2008a: 172).  This power may   be wielded over the media system in the form of a monopoly or censorship of a   political, financial or ideological nature with the consequence being a media   that represents the concerns and agendas of elites.  In contrast, the plural model posits that   power is distributed evenly across society with representation wide-ranging,   and encompassing diverse agendas and societal interests.  In this sense the media have the capacity   to persuade a sensitive political domain and also to act as ‘watchdog’ of the   state.Significant to this research is the   seminal work of Daniel C Hallin (1989).    Hallin critically assessed the role the media played during the   Vietnam war and debunks the erroneous belief that the media ‘lost’ the war   for the US through critical reports that destroyed domestic support for the   war.  Hallin posits that the American   media were in fact largely supportive of US military action.  The analysis suggests that when the media   were critical of policy, it was merely a reflection of the internal debates   occurring within the US administration at the time.  Hallin developed his theory into the   pictorialisation of the Spheres of Consensus, Controversy and Deviance.


W Lance Bennett’s (1990) Indexing   Hypothesis takes Hallin’s (1989) sphere of legitimate controversy as its foundational   basis.  The theory is that the mass   media ‘index’ to elite opinion.  By   this Bennett suggests the media mirror the opinion of elites, or take cues   and reflect internal debates and within these elite realms, for instance   within the government.  Entman (2003,   2004) takes this interpretation further with his work on the concept of media   framing and the pictorial representation of Cascading Activation which   illustrates a political hierarchy through which information must pass before   it reaches its receptive audience.  In   this respect, Entman’s work is not dissimilar from Herman and Chomsky’s   (1994) concept of ‘filters’ through which information must pass within the   propaganda model.  In Herman and   Chomsky’s model, the structures of a capitalist economy act to determine what   information receives media coverage.    It is their additional concept of worthy and unworthy victims that   forms a large basis of the development of the research.  Rooted in a neo-Gramscian corporate   hegemonic model, Herman and Chomsky’s idea of worthy and unworthy victims   relates to the notion that the mass media will give coverage to victims of   enemy state violence (or their supporters) but give little coverage to those   victims of domestic state violence.


The CNN effect is a phenomenon   generally thought borne of Western military interventions throughout the   1990s (for example the Gulf War, 1991 and Somalia, 1993-1995) and the idea   that saturation coverage of tragedies abroad, compels publics to call for   foreign policy commitments.  Susan   Moeller (1999) has challenged the magnetism of saturation coverage,   suggesting it can lead to a compassion fatigue.  Furthermore, Virgil Hawkins (2002)   highlights the ‘other-side of the CNN effect’, challenging us to look where   CNN’s camera lenses are not pointing to find hidden stealth conflicts that go   unreported and unaided.

4.   Discussion of implications:
The implications are for a greater   depth of understanding concerning the media-foreign policy nexus.  The relationship between these two   phenomena is dynamic, complex and often chaotic.  The research outcomes may provide new   insights into political communication and the role of the mass media in   pivotal foreign policy decision-making.    Additionally, the research may provide implications for foreign policy   decision-makers in their handling of crises and dissemination of   information.  Foreign policy bodies may   decide instead to ‘stage-manage’ the media lest be drawn into public pressure   arguments for policy commitments, while the mass media may find their pursuit   of information goes beyond levels of morality, as with the Leveson Inquiry.  Of course, what this fraught relationship   means for democratic ideals, freedom of the press and the global protection   of human rights is of even greater magnitude.
5. List of key   references/resources:
Bennett, W, L. (1990) ‘Toward a   Theory of Press-State Relations in the United States’, Journal of   Communication, 40(2) 103-127Entman, R. (2003) ‘Cascading   Activation: Contesting the White House’s Frame After 9/11’, Political   Communication, 20(4) 415-432Entman, R. (2004) Projections of   Power: Framing News, Public Opinion and US Foreign Policy, University of   Chicago Press: Chicago

Geuss, R. (1981) The Idea of a   Critical Theory, Habermas and the Frankfurt School, Cambridge University   Press: Cambridge

Gilboa, E. (2005) ‘The CNN Effect:   The Search for a Communication Theory of International Relations’, Political   Communications, 22 (1) 27-44

Hallin, D, C. (1989) The   “Uncensored War”: The Media and Vietnam, University of California Press:   California

Hawkins, V. (2002) ‘The Other Side   of the CNN Factor: The Media and Conflict’, Journalism Studies, 3(2)   225-240

Herman, E, S. and Chomsky, N.   (1994) Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media,   Vintage: London

Moeller, S, D. (1999) Compassion   Fatigue: How the Media Sell Disease, Famine, War and Death, Routledge:   New York

Robinson, P. (2002) The CNN   Effect: The Myth of News, Foreign Policy and Intervention, Routledge:   Oxon

Robinson, P. (2008a) ‘Media and US   Foreign Policy’, in Cox, M. and Stokes, D. (eds) (2008) US Foreign Policy,   Oxford University Press: Oxford

Robinson, P. (2008b) ‘The Role of   Media and Public Opinion’, in Smith, S., Hadfield, A. and Dunne, T. Foreign   Policy: Theories, Actors, Cases, Oxford University Press: Oxford





Name(s) of   Author(s): Aneta Brockhill
Affiliated   Institution(s): University of Plymouth
Address for   Correspondence: Room 405   CookworthyPlymouth   University
Email Address for   Correspondence:
Telephone Number   for Correspondence:
Stream and Title   No: 2
Title of Paper: Structural   violence in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The case study of Israeli   hydropolitics in the West Bank
Keywords: Structural   violence, direct violence, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, hydropolitics



1. Problem statement/rationale, including reference to key   literature:
Sahliyeh argues that ‘the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is   potentially the most lethal and volatile […] and the most difficult to   resolve’ (in Milton-Edwards, 2006:105). The difficulties in finding a   resolution to the conflict lie in the nature of the conflict itself. The   conflict is ‘a contest between two national identities that refuse to accept   the validity and the right of the other to exist’ (Kamrava, 2011:231). The   underlying fact is that violence is a central feature of that contest.   Violence in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has been widely discussed in the   existing literature. It could be argued however, that the majority of   academic studies had focused on analysing the military dynamic of direct   violence between the parties. The aim of this paper is to go beyond the   traditional concern of peace research-the elimination of direct violence- to   the broader agenda of the removal of structural violence of social   inequalities and injustice in the conflict. The paper focuses on structural   violence in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and analyses the impact of the   violence on the protraction of the conflict. As unequal access to resources   is one of the most common forms of structural violence, the main case study the   paper examines is the Israeli hydropolitics in the West Bank (Beyer,   2008).The paper argues the continuing failure to address structural violence   prevents the possibility of resolving the conflict, and thus contributes to   its protraction.
2. Research design and methods of data collection and analysis   or method inquiry:
The paper provides a conceptual framework for the study of   structural violence in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and its impact on   the persistence of the conflict. It bases its analysis on Johan Galtung’s   triangle of violence, in which he identifies three types of violence: direct,   structural and cultural. Direct violence is visible as behaviour. It involves   the use of physical force such as killing or torture. Structural violence is   an indirect form of violence. Unlike direct violence, it lacks an   identifiable actor who causes harm. It is built into social, political and   economic structures and manifests itself as social inequality and inequality   in power distribution.  Cultural violence   refers to any aspects of culture, such as religion or ideology that can be   used to justify or legitimize direct or structural violence (Galtung, 1969,   Galtung, 1990). The paper is based on my MA dissertation, in which I relied   entirely on the analysis of the secondary data. My PhD thesis further   identifies the presence and the implication of structural violence in the   conflict. It concentrates on an analysis of the Israeli-Palestinian peace   process and examines to what extent the peace process has failed to bring a   peaceful solution to the conflict because it has underplayed the significance   of structural violence. The research philosophy I adapt is the   phenomenological paradigm. The emphasis is on understanding people’s experiences or behaviours rather than   explaining them. In terms of methodology, grounded theory will be employed.   The data, collected using the research method of interviews, will be analysed   in relation to the theory of structural violence to develop a substantive   theory, based on the response of the participant, to the question ‘to what   extent does structural violence explain the persistence of the   Israeli-Palestinian conflict? The data will elaborate and extend theories of   structural violence and enable a new insight into the concept.
3. Main findings:
The structural violence of the unequal relationship   between Israelis and Palestinians is evident in the stark differential in   water distribution and consumption between the two groups. Based on WHO   recommendations each person should receive the minimum of 100 litres per   capita daily (which does not include domestic agriculture, livestock and   losses). As Amnesty International reports, while the average Palestinian in   the West Bank utilises 70 litres a day, the average Israeli uses 300 litres   of water a day (Amnesty International, 2009:3). In some rural communities,   some Palestinians survive on as little as 20 litres per day (Amnesty   International, 2009:3).As Galtung argues, structural violence and direct violence   are interrelated. Underplaying or ignoring the significance of any of them is   dangerous.  The underlying assumption   is simple, ‘violence breeds violence’ and the reaction to structural violence is often direct violence   (Galtung, 1990:295). Structural violence leads to frustration and can breed   direct violence on the part of oppressed groups in the form of resistance, or   an attempt to initiate social and political changes. Alternatively, elites,   or as Galtung defines, topdogs, can also depend upon the use of direct   violence to maintain their superior political or social position in an   unequal social structure (Atack, 2009:44). Direct violence therefore, could   be considered as a manifestation of the conflict rather than its cause   (Dudouet, 2010:3). Following that argument, structural violence could be   regarded as a root of the conflict, and consequently, pose the main obstacle   to its resolution. It is therefore crucial to identify and address the acts   of structural violence. Tackling only one ‘corner’ of the triangle of   violence, and underplaying or ignoring the other, helps to explain the   persistence of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and contributes to the lack   of a resolution to the conflict itself.
4. Discussion of implications:
Galtung’s approach offers an alternative framework to the   study of violence. It allows us to go beyond the ‘ideological prison’ of   analysing conflicts, only in respect to the elimination of direct violence   (Weber, 2004:32). It provides a means of examining many types of violence   that either go unnoticed, or are not perceived as violence at all. Galtung’s   typology of violence enables us to characterise different dimensions of   violence and study the interconnection between them. Furthermore, Galtung’s   approach plays a political role in analysing conflict. An extended definition   not only includes the concerns of most disadvantaged people of a society that   are more likely to be subjects of structural violence (Coady, 1999:24, Kent,   2003:384) ‘Discarding structural accounts of violence has to be seen as a   political act, as it naturalizes exploitative social relations’ (Fleming,   2012:484) and benefits the relatively powerful’ (Nevins, 2002:523). The   adoption of any of the definitions of violence depends on the interests of those   employing them.
5. List of key references/resources:
Amnesty   International (2009) Troubled Waters-Palestinians Denied Fair Access to Water   Israel-Occupied Palestinian Territories at,   [Accessed 12 April 2013]Atack, I.   (2009) Peace studies and social change: The role of ethics and human agency.   Development Education in Action. Policy & Practice: A Development   Education Review at, [Accessed 12   May 2011]Beyer, C.   (2008) Violent globalism: conflict in response to empire. Hampshire: Ashgate   Publishing Ltd.

Dudouet,   V. (2010) Overview of the field of Conflict Resolution in the context of   asymmetric conflicts III. Critical review of multi-track peacemaking interventions   in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Palestinian Resistance at, [Accessed 25 April 2011]

Coady, C.,   A., J. (1999) ’The Idea of Violence’. In M., B. Steger and N., S. Lind, eds.   Violence and its Alternatives: an Interdisciplinary Reader. New York:   Palgrave MacMillan. Ch. 3

Fleming,   M. (2012): The Regime of Violence in Socialist and Postsocialist Poland,   Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 102:2, 482-498

Galtung,   J. (1969) ‘Violence, Peace, and Peace Research’. Journal of Peace Research.   Vol. 6(3), pp. 167-191.

Galtung,   J. (1990) ‘Cultural violence’. Journal of Peace Research. Vol. 27(3), pp.   291-305

Halwani,   R. and Kapitan, T. (2008) The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Philosophical   Essays on Self-Determination, Terrorism and the One-State Solution.   London& New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Kamrava,   M. (2011) The Modern Middle East: A Political History Since the First World   War. London: California University Press Ltd.

Kelman,   H., C. (2007) ‘The Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process and Its Vicissitudes.   Insight from Attitude Theory’. American Psychologist. Vol. 62(4), pp.   287-303.

Kent, G.   (1993) ‘Analyzing Conflict and Violence’. Peace and Change. Vol. 18(4),   pp.373-398

Milton-Edwards,   B. (2006) Contemporary Politics in the Middle East. Cambridge: Polity Press

Nevins, J.   (2002) ‘(Mis)representing East Timor’s past: structural-symbolic violence,   international law, and the institutionalization of injustice’. Journal of   Human Rights. Vol. 1(4), pp. 523-540

Weber, T.   (2004) ‘The impact of Gandhi on the development of Johan Galtung’s peace   research’. Global Change, Peace   & Security. Vol.16 (1), pp. 31-43


Name(s) of Author(s): Jiang Pan, Shaofeng Liu
Affiliated Institution(s): Plymouth Business School
Address for   Correspondence: Cookworthy Room 510, Plymouth University, PL4 8AA
Email Address for   Correspondence:
Telephone Number   for Correspondence: 07403456968
Stream and Title   No: 3
Title of Paper: Identifying Critical Knowledge for Integrated Decision   Support
Keywords: knowledge management, critical knowledge,  global supply chains, integrated decision   support, GAMETH



1. Problem statement/rationale, including reference to   key literature:
It is widely known that knowledge can help organisations increase   products and services value, support global supply chain integration   decisions and strengthen organisations’ competitiveness. But it doesn’t mean that   organisations should keep as much knowledge as possible.  Actually, holding and maintaining any   unimportant or unnecessary knowledge is a type of waste because of the   holding and set-up costs for the knowledge, this is similar to keeping   substantial goods in a high inventory level. In addition, unlike   actual goods, knowledge cannot be used up and it can even be increased during   its dissemination among knowledge users. The more knowledge is used, the more   it tends to grow and be accumulated by its users. Therefore, when the amount   of knowledge is too overwhelming and there is no systematic method for   retrieving knowledge from vast knowledge database, the workload for decision   makers will be a nightmare.   And exploiting and using the entire organisation’s knowledge requires a large   human and financial investment. This problem deteriorates in the context   of global supply chain management.In order to   optimise the capitalising operation, companies should only focus on selecting   and using the critical knowledge which “supplies essential   resources to the conception of products and new services, that contributes to   the added value and to the performances of the functional and operational   processes of the firm, and that is the essential factor to maintain and   improve its competitive position. That knowledge is vulnerable, i.e.: rare,   specific and unique, imperfectly diffused, non-substitutable, difficult to   pass down” (Grundstein and Rosenthal-Sabroux, 2005). Therefore, it   is necessary to know how to identify or locate, preserve and share critical   knowledge.


Author will introduce   a method, “GAMETH” developed by Grundstein (2000), to locate the company’s   critical knowledge for improving the quality of decision making. This method   consists of three steps: The first step is to identify sensitive   process with the stakeholders. The second stage consists of modelling   sensitive processes identified and analysing critical activities in related   to each sensitive process. The sensitive process presents the stakes and   includes activities. As a result of the constraints (e.g. technical specification   to be respected) and the dysfunction of these activities, these activities   could be weakened and put the process in danger. The problem linked with   critical activities are called “determining problems”. Some of these problems   can be solved by abolish some constraints (Saad et al., 2003 cited in Ermine   et al., 2006).  The other ones lead to   the third step: characterising “potential crucial knowledge”. In this stage,   researcher will clarify and locate the knowledge necessary to solve relevant   problems. This analysis is conducted on identifying two types of knowledge:   missing knowledge and poorly mastered knowledge (Saad, et al., 2005).


2. Research design and methods of data collection and   analysis or method inquiry:
Both quantitative and qualitative methods will be used in this   project. Interview and questionnaire may be used to identify sensitive   processes and activities which are vital for an organisation’s objective(s)   in order to locate the problems and critical knowledge which is essential to   solve these problems.  Analytical   methods, such as ANP and ANN, may be used to synthesize empirical findings in   terms of sensitive processes, critical activities and critical knowledge.
3. Main findings:
Supported by the GAMETH method, the critical   knowledge can be captured among massive, complex and fuzzy information and   data, and be retained and updated at an optimised inventory level, and then   be transferred either to the right organisations or right individuals at the   right form at the right time. Accordingly, the efficiency and effectiveness   of decision making can be improved.
4. Discussion of implications:
Exploiting and   using the entire organisation’s knowledge requires a large human and   financial investment. By capitalising critical knowledge, company can save   time and reduce cost, and also the efficiency and effectiveness of   decision making can be improved.
5. List of key references/resources:
Ermine, J., Boughzaka, I., and Tounkara,   T., (2006), Critical knowledge map as a decision tool for knowledge   transfer actions, The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol.4,   Iss.2, pp.129-140Grundstein, M., and Rosenthal-Sabroux, C.,   (2005), A process modelling approach to identify and locate potential   crucial knowledge: the CAMETH framework, [Online],   [Accessed Date: 10th February 2013]


Grundstein, M., (2000), From   capitalising on company knowledge to knowledge management, [Online],   [Accessed Date: 11th March 2013]


Saad, I., Rosenthal-Sabroux, C., &   Grundstein, M., (2005), Improving the decision making process in the   design project by capitalising on company’s crucial knowledge, Group   Decision and Negotiation, Vol.14, pp.131-145.



Name(s) of Author(s): Magda   Maszczynska
Affiliated Institution(s): Plymouth University
Address for   Correspondence: School of LawDerrys CrossPLYMOUTH, UK
Email Address for   Correspondence:
Telephone Number   for Correspondence:
Stream and Title   No: 4
Title of Paper: The Devil at the Door, Investigating the nature of communities and   organised crime within.
Keywords: Crime, gangs, justice, organized crime



1. Problem statement/rationale, including reference to   key literature:
Jeremy Bentham in 1789 wrote: “Punishment then, as applied to   delinquency, may be unprofitable in both or either of two ways: 1. By the   expense it would amount to, even supposing the application of it to be   confined altogether to delinquency: 2. By the danger there may be of its   involving the innocent in the fate designed only for the guilty” (Bentham,   The Principles of Morals and Legislation, 1789). Punishment is expensive, the   notion of punishment in philosophical terms can have similar implications to delinquency   itself and there is a danger of punishing the innocent by mistake. When   society thinks of gangs, most of people consider crime and crime control. So   why cannot the authorities wipe out gangs? Simple question may require   complex answers. There is a general lack of resources within police   departments in order to perform adequately. Social justice and public order   should not only aim to eliminate gangs, but also find an alternative way of   life, similar, yet licit.
2. Research design and methods of data collection and   analysis or method inquiry:
Literature review supporting police methods
3. Main findings:
Previous research of mine and others indicates   that gangs are an integrated element of society, especially in the low-   income areas. This publication intends to fulfil the theme which was set for   the panel: Communities Ruled by Practice. Therefore, this insight will   present and analyze various law enforcement institutions and their approaches   to combat organized crime.There are number of issues which influence   police- gang relationships. One of the most prominent factors is: local as   well as national politics. Police may undertake two approaches according to   current socio-political climate, as advised: use of physical force, in the   form of quasi-military action and ‘social worker’ approach – when police   officers attempt to win minds and hearts of gang members, in order to   persuade them to quit participating in gang associated activities. Certainly,   there were attempts to incorporate both approaches, but the approach that   took priority was determined by what politicians are willing to allow.   Different tactics of dealing with gangs vary across cities. The second factor   which influences police- gang relationship involved the relationship the   police have with the community in which gang members live. Cooperation is a   key to success; however it may not always be present. However, if the   community isn’t on the police side; Sanchez Jankowski (1994) proposed three   outcome activities to occur: first; the police is more careful with the use   of indiscriminate force. The police may worry that the community would produce   a political reaction which may be disadvantageous to the employment status of   those involved. Second, the police is frustrated and resentful towards the   community, therefore in search for making their jobs easier, the police may   be mean toward the community. Finally, build-up frustration and hostility of   police officers over the community’s resistance to help them to tackle crime   may result in police to engage in violent response toward gang members. All   in all, the police usually prefer the military to the social worker approach.
4. Discussion of implications:
In order to explain the interrelation between   gangs and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) it is crucial to have an overview   on the social geography in which they interact. After the police have performed   their duties, the responsibility switches to the court system. Gangs are   still a difficult case for the Criminal Justice System. Firstly, because   society is threatened by gangs, most of which are associated with serious   crime. Criminal Justice System is mostly constructed in order to deal with   individuals rather than with organizations. So, when the criminal   organization commits crime, and the society seeks a policy to manage the   problem effectively, the Criminal Justice System may find itself in a difficult   position. CJS’s main duties are to seek justice, but also maintain public   order. Current CJS is not sufficiently prepared to deal with groups,   therefore with organized crime. When assessing the underworld structures and   networks, we can see that there is more to the picture than meets the eye.   Many of gang members are underage; therefore, their cases ought to be dealt   with in a different way than adult cases. There is a mismatch of the CJS and   the social composition of gangs. Gangs consist of juveniles and adults,   whereas the CJS consists of two separate jurisdictional structures; one that   deals with juvenile offenders and one that deals with adults. The juvenile   court is leaning towards rehabilitation, whereas the approach toward adult   offenders is quite different- is dominated by the appeal for retribution.The third problem is connected to the feeling of   impotence that many court official have about their ability to solve the   gang-problem. The general overview from court officials is that they believe   that poverty is the main cause for the rise of gang activity, together with   problems on the involvement in the labour market, the family and the schools.   Ruth Kornhauser, who analysed the social disorganization theories, control   theories and cultural deviance theories, concluded that they share a similar   logic foundation. They all seem to share an assumption that gangs emerge from   poverty and persist because poverty persists. In this case- the reality seems   to actually resemble it, gangs persist because socially disorganized poor   communities have developed a culture that has reproduced theses deviant   behaviour models and made it difficult for formal institutions to establish   control.Additionally, the problem of globalisation   appears to have significant impact on the international social, economic and   political situation. Its influence can have dual impact on the communities,   one positive, represented by notions of pro- development and pro- profit,   however on the other side, as beautifully written by David Hagedorn (2008):

‘In   many places around the world, people are abandoned by economic globalization   and, bearing in mind their limited licit opportunities, may choose gangs and   the underground economy for survival’

Nonetheless, gang emergence processes, their   persistence and activities create an incredibly complex phenomenon. Another   burning, yet very unpleasant issue related to the question: “How cannot   authorities wipe out gangs?”- I would like to urge to look at the current   situation in Italy, and then answer the question: What would you do if a   gangster or two would pay you a visit and say that they going to kill your   wife and kids if you will not vote accordingly, or if you will not do what   you are asked. What would you do? This question not only indicates the   inability of public officials, law enforcement and police officers to imply   any changes, and fight crime, but also indicate this extreme severity and   ruthlessness which gangs employ to achieve their goals.

5. List of key references/resources:


Closing remarks


Connecting communities of practice across time, distance and specialisation is a constant challenge for all types of community, as suggested by the research presented at 2013 Plymouth Business School Symposium. The reasons for linking hard-won information and pooling shared resources have been discussed at this event between researchers and practitioners.

Again, the event was a success and as Postgraduate research Director for Plymouth Business School I would like to express my thanks to all those who took part, particularly David Carter, Nicola Langdon and Magda Maszczynska (Organising Committee), Nichola Garland (Budget), Rob Giles and Liz Thomson (Technical Support), and Derek Greer, Ian Gibson, Miguel Silva and Robin Loveridge (Guest Speakers), Dr Jonathan Lean, Dr Adrian Barton and Dr Patrick Holden (Panel Chairs/Reviewers), and all the postgraduate students who presented their research as papers and posters.

Finally, congratulations to Imane El Hakimi for the award of Best Poster on theme of project performance evaluation within Arab countries.


Dr Jonathan Mozier

Postgraduate Research Director

Plymouth University Business School

Cookworthy Building – Drake Circus

Plymouth – Devon PL4 8AA – United Kingdom